Polycystic Ovarian syndrome has become the most common disease among woman. It is researched that about 1 in 8 women are being affected with PCOD all over the world. It is more common among the age group of 15-20 years that is during the reproductive period of women. It is found that the harmone imbalance is the main reason for the disease. The accelerating factor is stress and weight gain in women. Now a days it is becoming more common among females. SO today the PcOD is more common. The most important cause of infertility among woman is due to PCOS. About 30% of women in reproductive life is infertile due to PCOD.
Polycystic Ovarian disease is also known as Stein and Leventhal syndrome which was first described in 1935.Harmonal imbalance can be affected by a women’s emotions, thoughts, diet and personal history.
The functioning of ovaries is under the control of pituitary glands which further takes the orders from the hypothalamus. Harmones like GnRH, FSH, Lh help in maturation and release fo dominant follicle. One dominant follicle matures and release Ovum. This dominant and mature follicle releases oestrogen which lowers FSH. This causes surge in the production of LH. Ovulation takes place approximately 10-16 hrs after the LH peak. Any change in the action of this hypothalamus pituatuary ovarian pathway wil hamper thefuncioning of the ovaries leading to anovulation, menstrual irregularies and finally infertility. The PCOS is the result of this altered hormonal balance.
· Irregular menses, Oligomenorrhoea or Amenorrhoea
· Appearance of acne and hair growth on face
· Appearance of masculine features, weight gain
· Finally Infertility
The diagnosis is based on three features:
· Chronic absence of ovulation that leads to menstrual irregularities
· High levels of androgens.
· Cysts in one or both ovaries(USG)